White Papers and Technical Notes


This page brings information about electrical engineering issues and present Socomec solutions on the matter based on our long term experience. Learn more about issues, problem solving alternatives and make your own decisions ….

White papers

Basics for electrical system design including protection and transfer

Power availability is the cornerstone of critical applications – including Data Centres, hospitals and airports – but to guarantee availability it is vital to design an electrical architecture specifically for optimized performance.



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VRLA Battery Management in UPS applications

In UPS applications, energy storage is a key element to ensure the continuity of the energy supply to critical loads.



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Design optimisation for improved availability without impacting protection

In this document you will find analysis to help achieve the optimum balance, considering factors such as power sources, cabling and control systems.


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Higher power availability in a hospital project through proper transfer systems

Medical facilities are widely understood to be one of the most critical global applications. Ensuring the safety of patients and medical staff – particularly in the face of high risk situations – is of paramount importance.


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Failure mode definitions

Modular UPS systems are usually presented as being extremely reliable with regards to their output. This is because the best modular UPS systems are designed to increase the reliability and availability of the overall system with minimum downtime thanks to their hot-swappable parts and cost-effective redundancy, the complete independence of each module and the prevention of fault propagation if one of the modules fails..


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The rapid evolution of the Lithium-Ion battery technology over the last decade has provided several advantages, such as energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and space savings.


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Optimisation of protection and transfer in data center applications

Every hardworking Data Centre – and the electrical designers tasked with optimizing performance – are faced with the challenge of increasing power availability




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Principles of power availability in high-rise buildings

High-rise buildings place unique demands on the availability of a power supply. At the design stage of a thirty storey building, the safety of tenants within that building – whether shops, offices or apartments – is critical.



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How to ensure high availability for infrastructure projects

Critical infrastructures such as airports, runways, tunnels and the underground or subway are highly sensitive applications where a power outage can have dangerous – and fatal – consequences.



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Specific requirements of power availability in industrial applications

With competition from every corner of the globe, all industries face unprecedented demands to increase productivity – which is in turn reliant on improved power availability.




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Availability of auxiliary power systems in electrical substations

From production right through to the end consumer, electrical substations are at the heart of the energy distribution network. Furthermore, with the trend towards Smart Grids, these substations are becoming increasingly complex as they evolve, day by day, to manage an ever growing number of functions.



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Selection of switchboard incomers

With multiple factors at play such as protection, footprint, ease of use, maintenance and, of course, reliability, the appropriate selection of switchboard gears – whether circuit-breakers, contactors, TSE or disconnect switches – is no easy task.



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The impact of a power module’s MTBF value on the modular UPS system

The best modular UPS systems are designed to increase the global system’s reliability and availability with minimum downtime due to their hot-swappable parts and cost-effective redundancy, the complete independence of each module and no fault propagation if one of the modules fails.



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Energy storage for smart grids

This white paper will allow you to better understand the benefits of an energy storage system, as grid support and as part of a microgrid. This is a real tool to help design an efficient and sustainable energy storage system



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 UPS solutions for medical imaging

Medical Imaging machines are too important and their installation is too specific to be treated as standard, particularly if a UPS is added to the general system. This is where the difficulties arise: which UPS should be used?



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UPS lifetime bottleneck components and preventive maintenance

The companies are primarily rely on facility or maintenance managers for effective management of their UPS systems.


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Technical notes


IEC 61557-12 reference standard

To understand the operation of an electrical installation and to anticipate any risks of deviation, the parameters that govern the operation of the equipment must be monitored. To do this, appropriate measuring devices must be installed to gather the measurements. 



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Advanced measurements

A measuring unit performs a number of functions, from simple power consumption readings to advanced measurements related to the quality of the electrical energy. This document discusses these advanced measurements and their usefulness in practical applications.



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Implementing ISO 50001

Published in 2011, ISO 50001 is the international standard for energy management. Its purpose is to allow companies* to put in place the necessary systems and procedures to improve their energy performance, including energy efficiency, energy use and consumption for all types of fluids (water, gas, electricity, etc.).



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MID Directive

The MID (Measuring Instrument Directive) is a European directive dating back to March 31, 2004 (2004/22/EC). It applies to devices and systems with a measuring function, such as water, gas, electrical and heat meters and weighing instruments used in commercial transactions. The objective of the MID is to ensure a high level of reliability and metrological assurance so that any involved party can trust the measurement readings. 



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Overall accuracy

Measurement is crucial to reducing power consumption. But all too often, when faced with a choice of measurement solutions, the user focuses on the accuracy of the measuring device (PMD), forgetting to take into account the accuracy of its sensors. But the accuracy of measurement is inextricably linked to the accuracy of the overall chain, i.e. the PMD and its associated sensors. 



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Radio Frequency (RF) installation rules

RF communication is a good alternative if there is no wired network or if a measurement point is remote or isolated from the communication network. It is also very practical for adding measurement points into an existing installation without modifying the existing communication architecture. 



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